According to the Department of Public Works and Highways of the Philippines. road surface analysis in Negros Oriental shows that there is a total of 909.768 kilometers of national and provincial roads, 120.42 kilometers of which are paved with concrete, 308.885 kilometers or 33.95% are asphalted, 352.596 kilometers or 38.76 % are gravel roads and 127.867 kilometers or 14.05% are earth roads.
The Dumaguete City Airport is the only major airport in Negros Oriental serving daily domestic flights to and from Manila with two airline companies, namely Philippine Air Lines/Air Philippines and Cebu Pacific. There are also direct flights from Cebu to Dumaguete via Cebu Pacific on certain days.
With facilities for all weather conditions, the Dumaguete Airport is actually located in the town of Sibulan, just a few kilometers outside the capital city (about 5 minutes away).
Negros Oriental also has two (2) private airports: in Tolong, Sta. Catalina and at the Pamplona Estate in Pamplona. Another private airport is soon to be constructed in Bayawan City.
The Dumaguete seaport is a major link to Central Visayas making it past of the Tourism Highway and Mindanao traffic , where it plays an important role in the “Strong Republic Nautical Highway” route.
Another seaport in Guihulngan caters mainly to small vessels ferrying passengers between the Guihulngan Port and Tangil, Dumanjug, Cebu.
Dumaguete City and five municipalities in Negros Oriental have high access to potable water. Forty percent (40%) of the total households are served with Level 1 water systems, while 23.75 % is served with Level II systems. Others get water from other sources.
Dumaguete City has the highest percentage of households with access to potable water at 100%
while municipality with the lowest percentage of households with potable water is Jimalalud with 45.1%. The towns of Bacong, Amlan, San Jose, Sibulan, and Tanjay City all have 95% or more of their total households with access to potable water.
Telecommunications facilities operating in the province include telephone systems, cable television stations, and telegraph stations, and telex station exchange. Each local government unit (municipality and city) has a postal station that caters to the populace, usually located at the town or city center. Private telephone companies maintain modern telephone equipment, giving access to all major cities in 116 countries in the world on a 24-hour basis through long distance International Direct Dial (IDD) and National Direct Dial (NDD).
Although some ciites and municipalities have direct contact through telephones, cellular phones and single side band radio sets, a majority of these cities and municipalities still require additional communication lines.
There are 47 internet cafes that operate in Negros Oriental; 30 of these are in Dumaguete City, considered a university town and the center of learning for the province. The rest can be found in the cities of Bais, Tanjay and Bayawan and the municipalities of Sibulan and Bacong.
Negros Oriental's’ primary source of power is the geothermal energy harnessed from the geothermal fields in Palinpinon, Valencia. There are two power plants generating geothermal energy which has a combined capacity of 192.5 mega watts.
The five (5) major cities of Negros Oriental are its capital Dumaguete, Bais, Bayawan, Canlaon, Tanjay. The province has a total of three (3) congressional districts, 20 municipalities and 557 barangays.